Phylogeography and postglacial expansion of the endangered semi-aquatic mammal Galemys pyrenaicus
© Igea et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 17 December 2012
Accepted: 28 May 2013
Published: 6 June 2013
Species with strict ecological requirements may provide new insights into the forces that shaped the geographic variation of genetic diversity. The Pyrenean desman, Galemys pyrenaicus, is a small semi-aquatic mammal that inhabits clean streams of the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula and is endangered in most of its geographic range, but its genetic structure is currently unknown. While the stringent ecological demands derived from its aquatic habitat might have caused a partition of the genetic diversity among river basins, Pleistocene glaciations would have generated a genetic pattern related to glacial refugia.
To study the relative importance of historical and ecological factors in the genetic structure of G. pyrenaicus, we used mitochondrial and intronic sequences of specimens covering most of the species range. We show, first, that the Pyrenean desman has very low levels of genetic diversity compared to other mammals. In addition, phylogenetic and dating analyses of the mitochondrial sequences reveal a strong phylogeographic structure of a Middle Pleistocene origin, suggesting that the main lineages arose during periods of glacial isolation. Furthermore, both the spatial distribution of nuclear and mitochondrial diversity and the results of species distribution modeling suggest the existence of a major glacial refugium in the northwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Finally, the main mitochondrial lineages show a striking parapatric distribution without any apparent exchange of mitochondrial haplotypes between the lineages that came into secondary contact (although with certain permeability to nuclear genes), indicating incomplete mixing after the post-glacial recolonization. On the other hand, when we analyzed the partition of the genetic diversity among river basins, the Pyrenean desman showed a lower than expected genetic differentiation among main rivers.
The analysis of mitochondrial and intronic markers in G. pyrenaicus showed the predominant effects of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic structure of this species, while the distribution of the genetic diversity was not greatly influenced by the main river systems. These results and, particularly, the discovery of a marked phylogeographic structure, may have important implications for the conservation of the Pyrenean desman.
KeywordsConservation genetics Introns Mammals Mitochondrial genes Nuclear genes Pyrenean desman Niche modeling Iberian Peninsula Endemism
The genetic diversity patterns of species are a consequence of their evolutionary history (e.g. the existence of past refugia or vicariant geological events) and of contemporary constraints to dispersal (e.g. habitat fragmentation). These processes are expected to give rise to specific phylogeographic patterns [1–3], the detection of which can be useful to infer the relative importance of different evolutionary and ecological forces. Pleistocene glaciations have been among the major drivers in shaping the genetic structure of species, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere [4–7]. The isolation of populations in separate glacial refugia generated, first, a subdivision of the genetic pool of species into clearly distinct lineages. Moreover, subsequent colonization of new areas caused a particular pattern of genetic diversity in which past refugia retained maximum levels of genetic diversity whereas recently colonized regions became more homogeneous . However, current barriers to gene flow may be more determinant in the genetic structure of species inhabiting naturally fragmented habitats  or in species that have very specific ecological requirements, such as aquatic organisms .
The Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) is a small semi-aquatic mammal endemic to the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula. It occupies streams of clean and cold flowing waters with shallow but permanent water levels throughout the year, an habitat generally found in mountain areas. Its distribution is highly dependent on the presence of larvae of benthonic macroinvertebrates that the desman captures underwater. Adaptations to the aquatic life include a highly-mobile protracted snout, large hindfeet and a long tail with stiff hairs [9, 10]. Like many other specialists, the Pyrenean desman is an endangered species. For causes not clearly understood, it is undergoing significant declines across its whole geographic range. The situation has worsened during the last few years, particularly in the most southern populations, which have more Mediterranean climate. The decline of some populations has created a very fragmented distribution in this species . The Pyrenean desman is legally protected in the four countries where it is present (Spain, Portugal, France and Andorra) and currently appears as “Vulnerable” in the IUCN Red List .
The Pyrenean desman forms part of the family Talpidae, which is included in the mammalian order Eulipotyphla (traditionally called Insectivora). Within Talpidae, the Pyrenean desman is placed within the subfamily Desmaninae together with the Russian desman (Desmana moschata), and therefore they are the only two extant representatives of this group of semi-aquatic mammals. Fossil data indicate that desmanines were much more diverse in the past [13, 14] and the oldest fossil record is dated at 8.2 Myr . The monophyly of desmanines is strongly supported by molecular data  and the divergence between both extant species has been estimated at around 10 million years (Myr) ago . Therefore these two desman species are the last representatives of a unique lineage of specialist mammals that have experienced elevated extinction rates in the last few million years.
The Pyrenean desman is therefore an endemic, highly specialized, and relict species of great evolutionary and ecological interest. However, the genetic structure of the Pyrenean desman is yet to be investigated. Being a species with stringent ecological requirements, in which not all apparently favorable rivers are occupied , it is possible to hypothesize that the distribution of suitable habitats, very fragmented by their own nature, played a major role in structuring the genetic diversity of the species. For example, the genetic diversity could be partitioned, as in other organisms with strong aquatic requirements, according to major rivers or basins . On the other hand, G. pyrenaicus is a polymorphic species in which two subspecies, pyrenaicus and rufulus, have been described according to differences in coloration and size. The validity of these subspecies and their distribution are still a matter of debate [19–21] but it has been postulated that these differences arose from geographic isolation during the Pleistocene glaciations . Thus, the Pyrenean desman is a species of great interest on its own but it is also an ideal model to study how different ecological and evolutionary forces may have operated to establish the current distribution and genetic structure of species with strong ecological requirements.
To carry out a thorough genetic study of the Pyrenean desman, we first set up a noninvasive method of DNA extraction using droppings deposited on exposed rocks of the rivers it inhabits. Feces have previously been used to detect the presence of this elusive species [18, 22] and represent a very valuable source of samples for genetic analyses across its whole distribution range. We favored a homogeneous sampling strategy in which samples were collected from as many localities as possible, rather than from discrete populations, to reduce biases in the delimitation of clusters and to better discern genetic diversity gradients . Apart from feces, we also used tissue samples obtained from different biological collections as well as museum specimens. To assess the genetic diversity and the degree of connectivity between populations we used mitochondrial markers and nuclear introns. We show here how intron markers previously developed to be variable between closely related species and populations  can provide crucial information to study the evolutionary history of species. Our results allowed us to obtain, for the first time, important insights about the population history of the Pyrenean desman, and may have critical implications for the conservation of this endangered species.
Three types of samples of G. pyrenaicus were used for this study: feces, tissues obtained from different biological collections and museum samples (Additional file 1: Table S1). Fresh fecal samples were collected from different river localities, georeferenced and conserved in tubes containing absolute ethanol. To avoid using more than one fecal sample from the same individual, we only used sequences obtained from samples collected at least one kilometer apart, which is two to three times the typical home range of the Pyrenean desman [25, 26]. Samples collected within that distance, but with different genotypes, were also used. This way, 69 fecal samples were included in the study. Moreover, tissue samples from 63 specimens were obtained from well-preserved specimens of different biological collections. Finally, the dataset was supplemented with 2 historical bone samples (a claw and a rib fragment) donated from the museum collection of the Doñana Biological Station.
Fecal samples were extracted using the QIAamp DNA Stool Kit (QIAGEN), following the manufacturer’s instructions, in a final elution volume of 50 μl of water. These extractions were carried out in a separated UV-irradiated area with dedicated equipment. Tissue samples were processed with QIAGEN DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, and eluted in 75 μl of water. When necessary, to ensure maximum tissue lysis, samples were incubated in a lysis buffer with proteinase K at 56°C overnight.
The extraction of the two museum bone samples was carried out in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory. The samples were powdered and decalcified overnight in a 10 M EDTA solution at 37°C, followed by an overnight incubation in a lysis buffer with proteinase K and SDS at 56°C. The DNA was then extracted using a standard phenol-chloroform protocol  and finally concentrated using centricon columns.
PCR of mitochondrial sequences in feces and tissue samples
All PCR reactions were set up in a dedicated PCR clean-room that is physically separated from post-PCR working areas and regularly decontaminated by UV-irradiation. For each sample, we amplified the complete cytochrome b gene (1140 bp) and a fragment containing 342 bp of the 5′ distal part of the D-loop, using G. pyrenaicus specifically-designed primers (see Additional file 1: Table S2). In addition, the cytochrome b gene of the Russian desman, Desmana moschata, was also amplified from a tissue sample of this species. For fecal samples, due to DNA degradation, the cytochrome b gene was usually sequenced in three overlapping fragments of 483, 278 and 516 bp, respectively. For fresh tissue DNA, the complete cytochrome b was amplified in a single PCR reaction.
PCR reactions were performed in a final volume of 25 μl, containing 2–4 μl of genomic DNA, 1 μM of each primer, 0.75 units of Promega GoTaq DNA polymerase and 17.5 μg of bovine serum albumin, under the following conditions: an initial denaturation of 2 min at 95°C, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation (30 s at 95°C), annealing (30 s at 54°C) and extension (30 s at 72°C). A 5-minute extension at 72°C was finally added. PCR products were revealed by electrophoresis in a 1% agarose SYBR-Safe (Invitrogen) stained gel.
PCR of mitochondrial sequences of museum samples
Museum samples may contain degraded DNA due to chemical damage during the preservation process, thus incorporating induced mutations into some DNA molecules [28, 29]. To prevent these artificial mutations to be eventually included in the recovered sequence, we obtained two independent estimates of the sequences of the museum samples.
Preliminary tests revealed that the sample IBE-C3161 (a rib fragment) had DNA with a similar concentration and quality than fecal samples. Thus, the protocols used for this sample were the same ones used for feces, except that two independent PCR reactions per fragment were performed so that we obtained two independent sequences.
The sample IBE-C3159 (a claw), on the other hand, was obtained from an individual captured in 1973 and had a much more degraded DNA. Therefore, the amplification of the cytochrome b and the D-loop was achieved using a two-step multiplex approach . Two overlapping and independent sets of primers that covered the whole sequence of each mitochondrial marker were designed, the corresponding fragments ranging between 70 and 115 base pairs. For cytochrome b, two independents sets (A and B), each consisting of 8 non overlapping PCR products, were used, while the D-loop fragment was amplified using two smaller A and B sets of 3 and 2 PCR products, respectively. The 42 primer sequences are available upon request. In the first, multiplex step, all the primers of each independent set were used in a PCR reaction containing 5 μl of DNA, 2 units of Promega GoTaq DNA polymerase and 0.15 μM of each primer. The reaction conditions were as follows: initial denaturation at 94°C for 9 min and 30 cycles comprising denaturation at 94°C for 20 s, annealing at 54°C for 30 s and extension at 72°C for 30 s. Then, the second-step simplex PCRs were carried out for each individual fragment using a 1:20 dilution of the corresponding multiplex PCR product as the template, a concentration of 1.5 μM for each primer and following the same cycling conditions as for the first reaction. The 21 PCR reactions were directly sequenced and we obtained a single sequence. To obtain a second estimate of the sequence we repeated this multiplex PCR approach. Due to some difficulties with directly sequencing of some bands in the first PCR experiment, in the second round the fragments were cloned into the pstBlue-1 vector (Invitrogen). Three insert-containing plasmids were sequenced for each PCR fragment, thus obtaining a consensus sequence in which PCR errors revealed by the cloning process were disregarded.
Finally, for each sample, a comparison was made between the two sequences obtained via independent rounds of PCR reactions, and no differences were found. Thus, it seems that no extensive DNA damage had occurred during the preservation process of these two museum samples.
PCR of nuclear sequences
A subset of 29 tissue samples that represented all mitochondrial lineages and covered the whole geographic distribution of the species was selected, and eight nuclear single-copy introns were sequenced from them. The amplified introns were ACOX2-3, COPS7A-4, DHRS3-3, LANCL1-4, PRPF31-3, ROGDI-7 and SMYD4-5, chosen from the set described in Igea et at. , and an additional unpublished intron, ACPT-4, obtained during the filtering processes leading to this set . The primers used are listed in Additional file 1: Table S3. PCR reactions were set up with the following conditions: an initial denaturation of 3 min at 95°C, and 32 cycles of denaturation (30 s at 95°C), annealing (30 s at variable temperatures; see Additional file 1: Table S3, for the temperature of each marker), and extension (60 s at 72°C). A 5-minute extension at 72°C was finally added.
Sequences of all the intronic markers were also amplified from Desmana moschata and a representative of Talpinae (Talpa occidentalis), following procedures similar to those described above.
All PCR products were purified using ExoSAP-It (Affymetrix) and sequenced in both directions using the original PCR primers with BigDye v3.1 at different sequencing services. Sequences were inspected, trimmed and assembled using Geneious Pro (Biomatters Ltd.).
The cytochrome b and D-loop sequences of the 134 G. pyrenaicus samples were concatenated for further analyses. The optimal model of sequence evolution was determined using the Akaike Information Criterion with jModeltest version 0.1 . The resulting model was the Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano (HKY) with among-site rate variation assuming a gamma distribution (Γ) and a proportion of invariable sites (I). Using this model, a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree was reconstructed with PhyML version 3.0 . From this tree, a haplotype genealogy was generated using Haploviewer 1.0 . The phylogenetic relationships among the G. pyrenaicus mitochondrial sequences were also inferred using a Bayesian approach, as implemented in BEAST 1.6.2 . Previously, a molecular clock test was performed with PAUP* version 4.0b10  by estimating the likelihood of the PhyML topology with and without forcing a molecular clock. A likelihood-ratio test  indicated that the molecular clock hypothesis could not be rejected. Therefore, a strict molecular clock was used in BEAST and, as above, a HKY + Γ + I evolution model was set. For the tree prior, a coalescent constant population size model was used. All sites were used in a single partition but similar results were found when we set one partition per codon position and another one for the D-loop (not shown; results were similar with and without partitions likely due to the low genetic divergences within the species). The Markov chain was run for 50 million generations and sampled every 1000 generations. Convergence was checked with the BEAST utility Tracer, ensuring that all effective sample size values were greater than 200. In addition, we ensured that similar results were obtained across multiple runs. We removed the first 10% of the samples as burn-in and obtained the subsequent maximum clade credibility summary tree with median node heights using the BEAST utility TreeAnnotator.
For the heterozygous nuclear sequences, distinct haplotypes were manually obtained since the sequences contained only one heterozygous position. Haplotype genealogies were then generated for each marker using Haploviewer from the corresponding PhyML tree.
Genetic diversity, demographic and genetic differentiation analyses
Nucleotide and haplotype diversity parameters were estimated using DnaSP version 5 . Signals of departure from neutrality, which could be interpreted as past population expansions, were tested using Tajima’s D , Fu’s Fs and R2 statistics. Genetic differentiation among groups (one level) was assessed by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of the mitochondrial sequences using pairwise differences, with Arlequin 3.5 .
Correlation of genetic and geographical distances was assessed with a Mantel test using the program Alleles In Space 1.0 . Genetic barriers across the G. pyrenaicus distribution area were determined with the Monmonier’s Maximum Difference algorithm , which identifies the greatest genetic distance between any two locations, also using Alleles In Space . For this analysis, we used raw genetic distances calculated from the concatenated mitochondrial data and the corresponding geographical coordinates, setting for only one barrier to be detected.
Mitochondrial genetic diversity was estimated at each sampling location by using all sequences collected within 1 degree (approximately 100 km) of the location. This area allowed the estimation of genetic diversity from a good number of samples at each point, yet the resolution was good enough to distinguish regional differences in genetic diversity. In addition, centering the measurements around each sampling location, rather than using a fixed grid, allowed the efficient grouping in less sampled areas. To avoid inflating genetic diversity due to lineages in secondary contact, only sequences belonging to the same lineage were used for each locality but, for comparison, additional analyses were performed with mixed lineages. For each subset of sequences around a location with more than two samples, nucleotide diversity (π) was estimated. A regularly spaced grid of π values was then interpolated and a contour map was constructed using Surfer 10.2 (Golden Software Inc.).
Estimation of the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the mitochondrial sequences
Since no reliable multiple fossil calibrations close to G. pyrenaicus could be used to date the mitochondrial lineage splits, we had to rely on more external mammalian fossil data. However, in trees of divergent mammalian groups, mitochondrial genes are saturated whereas nuclear genes are more adequate . Therefore, the estimation of the time to the MRCA of the G. pyrenaicus mitochondrial haplotypes was done in two steps. First, we obtained an accurate calibration of the G. pyrenaicus– D. moschata split from a Bayesian nuclear tree of Laurasiatherian mammals with multiple fossil data. For this analysis, we used the eight introns sequenced in this study from G. pyrenaicus, D. moschata and T. occidentalis, as well as the corresponding orthologous sequences of the following Laurasiatherian mammals with genomes available in the Ensembl database : Felis catus, Canis familiaris, Pteropus vampyrus, Equus caballus, Bos taurus, Tursiops truncatus and Sus scrofa. For some of the species, not all the orthologous introns were available, resulting in 7.5% of missing data. Intron alignments were built with MAFFT using the L-INS-i accuracy-oriented method . Gblocks was subsequently applied with relaxed parameters to discard poorly aligned regions . These eight intron alignments were included as independent partitions in a BEAST analysis. The appropriate substitution model (as suggested by jModeltest) and an uncorrelated lognormal (UCLN) relaxed molecular clock were chosen for each partition. A relaxed clock was used since a likelihood-ratio test performed as above rejected the strict molecular clock for all introns. A Yule speciation model was used as tree prior. As calibrations, we used multiple mammalian fossil constraints previously compiled for key nodes , which include “hard” minimum and “soft” maximum constraints, thus making time estimations less sensitive to the parameters of the prior distributions . Using these data, we set lognormal prior distributions as follows: the offset was defined by the hard minimum, the mean in real space was adjusted so that the upper 95th percentile of the probability density distribution was coincident with the soft maximum, and the standard deviation was set to 1. The analysis was run for 100 million generations, and 10% of the trees were discarded as burn-in before computing the corresponding maximum clade credibility tree using median node heights. In addition, following Drummond et al., we evaluated the interaction among different calibration priors by running BEAST analyses without sequence data for the same number of generations. It was verified that the distributions of effective priors were included within the distributions of the corresponding priors, discarding the existence of unexpected interactions between priors.
In a second step, the resulting posterior distribution of the age of the G. pyrenaicus – D. moschata split was used in a subsequent analysis using only talpid cytochrome b sequences to estimate the time to the MRCA of the G. pyrenaicus mitochondrial sequences. In addition to all sequenced cytochrome b haplotypes of G. pyrenaicus (35 unique haplotypes) and D. moschata, we obtained from GenBank complete cytochrome b sequences of representative Talpinae species (75 haplotypes belonging to 18 species). Talpinae is a sister group to the G. pyrenaicus – D. moschata group (Desmaninae) and therefore it is the most adequate outgroup. In the BEAST analysis of these 111 sequences, the TrN + Γ + I model of sequence evolution was chosen following jModeltest, and a UCLN clock was assumed (since a likelihood-ratio test rejected the strict molecular clock for these talpid sequences). Due to the divergence of cytochrome b within the talpids family, particularly in third-codon positions, the sites were partitioned according to the three codon positions, so that each partition had its own model parameters. For the tree prior, a coalescent constant population size model was used since the node of main interest was intra-specific. The desmanines split was calibrated using a normal distribution with the mean and standard deviation taken from the results of the previous analysis of Laurasiatherians. Running conditions were the same as above.
In order to develop a distribution model of G. pyrenaicus, occurrence data were taken from the species distribution atlases of Spain , Portugal  and France . Coordinates of the records were obtained from the respective atlases or from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (http://www.gbif.org/). For each record, the center of the corresponding 10×10 km UTM square was taken, resulting in a total of 680 unique data points. The study area was defined between 39 and 44° latitude, and −10 and 4° longitude, encompassing the whole distribution area of G. pyrenaicus plus additional areas of potential dispersal, suitable for the selection of background data .
The 19 BioClim climatic variables , which represent summaries of means and variations in temperature and precipitation, plus altitude, were downloaded from the WorldClim global climate database version 1.4 at a spatial resolution of 2.5 arc-minutes (http://www.worldclim.org). Climatic variables were downloaded for present conditions and for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). For the latter, both the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC) were used. Colinearity among the climatic variables for present conditions was analyzed by means of pairwise correlations using 1000 randomly selected points from the area of interest. After removing variables with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9, we retained the following 11 variables: BIO1 (Annual Mean Temperature), BIO2 (Mean Diurnal Range), BIO3 (Isothermality), BIO4 (Temperature Seasonality), BIO5 (Max Temperature of Warmest Month), BIO6 (Min Temperature of Coldest Month), BIO8 (Mean Temperature of Wettest Quarter), BIO9 (Mean Temperature of Driest Quarter), BIO12 (Annual Precipitation), BIO14 (Precipitation of Driest Month), and BIO15 (Precipitation Seasonality).
To predict the potential distribution of the species in current conditions and in the LGM we used Maxent version 3.3.3 , which outputs a model with relative occurrence probability of a species within the grid cells of the study area. We used default settings, except that the model was run with 100 crossvalidate replicates, taking the mean values of the probabilities of presence. Accuracy of the model was tested using 75% of the presence data to train the model and 25% to test the model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the test data resulted in a value of 0.824, which is considered to correspond to a useful predictive model . Finally, this distribution model was used to predict the potential distribution of the species during the LGM using the CCSM and MIROC models. However, the MIROC model predicted very mild climatic conditions for the LGM in this part of the world and thus the distribution predicted for the Pyrenean desman in the LGM was very similar to the present distribution. The presence of many cold-adapted species in the Iberian Peninsula during the LGM  is not congruent with this model and therefore it was not used alone. When we analyzed both CCSM and MIROC models to estimate the minimum common area under both models , the resulting potential distribution was very similar to the results of the CCSM model, since this is the most restrictive model (not shown). Thus, only the CCSM model was used for the final analyses.
Mitochondrial phylogeographic analysis
In agreement with this root, which indicates that the deepest divergence occurred between groups A and B, the Monmonier’s Maximum Difference algorithm  identified the greatest genetic distance in the two contact zones between these two composite groups (Figure 1A).
The divergence between the lineages is quite shallow, with 1% mean differences (p distance) between groups A and B and 0.8% mean differences in the comparisons of both A1 with A2 and B1 with B2.
Mitochondrial genetic diversity
Mitochondrial genetic diversity and population expansion statistics of the concatenated complete cytochrome b sequence and a D-loop fragment of Galemys pyrenaicus calculated for the whole species and for the 4 mitochondrial lineages
Fu’s F s
The use of feces to obtain genetic data could lead to an underestimation of genetic diversity values if several samples of the same individual are used. Our choice of using only feces separated at least 1 km should prevent this problem but, for completeness in the phylogeographic analyses, we also included a few samples within that distance when haplotypes were different (see Methods). To test if this approach of selecting feces generated an unbiased collection of samples, we calculated nucleotide diversity for the 69 fecal samples and the 65 tissues separately (Table 1). The results were very similar for both sample sets (0.0070 and 0.0071 for tissues and feces, respectively) and very similar to the whole set. When the four lineages were separately analyzed to test for differences between types of samples, nucleotide diversity values were also very similar in tissues and feces except for the lineage A2 (most likely due to the small sample size of this lineage). These results indicate that our sampling scheme for collecting feces did not distort the genetic diversity results and, therefore, added important information for the genetic study of the species.
Nuclear genetic diversity
Nuclear genetic diversity (π) of the eight introns of Galemys pyrenaicus calculated for the whole species and for the four mitochondrial lineages
Estimation of the time to the MRCA of the mitochondrial sequences
Species distribution modeling in the LGM
Dating analysis of the mitochondrial lineages
We have been able to gather a number of solid pieces of evidence that show that the evolutionary history of G. pyrenaicus and the genetic structure of its populations were strongly influenced by the Pleistocene glaciations. Remarkably, the phylogeny of the mitochondrial genes exhibits a pronounced geographic pattern, with the presence of four lineages (grouped into two main phylogroups) that have a marked parapatric distribution. However, this structure is not by itself proof of the effects of glaciations as it may predate the Pleistocene. Therefore it is important to obtain an accurate dating of the splits of these lineages. Our dating approach allowed us to estimate that the split of the two most divergent mitochondrial phylogroups occurred 0.32 Myr ago and that the subsequent divergence of the two pairs of lineages concomitantly took place at around 0.23 Myr ago. Since sequence coalescence must be older than the population split, these dates represent the upper limit at which the desman populations started to diverge. Therefore, given these Middle Pleistocene lineage split times, it is very likely that the four desman populations evolved in four isolated glacial refugia, supporting the importance of the Pleistocene glaciations in the population structure of this species. Most probably, the populations started to diverge during earlier phases of the glacial periods and not necessarily in the last glaciation, explaining the deep mitochondrial divergences observed [59, 60].
Since we did not have reliable fossils in desmanines, we had to use more external calibrations of mammals for our dating analysis. This analysis benefited from the nuclear introns, which allowed us to reconstruct a Bayesian tree of mammals calibrated with multiple fossils and to estimate the divergence date of Galemys and Desmana. The obtained date at 13.9 Myr was quite adequate to calibrate, in a subsequent step, the mitochondrial gene tree. On the one hand, this date is not as old as to present problems of saturation. On the other hand, it is not as recent as to suffer from the problems of coalescence, which can be exacerbated when dating very recent nodes of a gene tree (< 10 Myr) . This calibration date was then introduced into a phylogenetic tree of the cytochrome b of talpids and, from this calibrated tree, we estimated the divergence time of the main Galemys mitochondrial lineages at 0.32 Myr. The evolutionary rate resulting with this approach for cytochrome b was 0.0224 substitutions/position/Myr. Although this evolutionary rate is line with those obtained for other mammalian groups [62, 63], different dating approaches have led to much higher rates [64–66]. Also, actual quantification of mutation accumulation from pedigree data has shown more elevated evolutionary rates in mitochondrial genes, at least in humans . It has been suggested that the possible existence of mutational hotspots and other problems  may cause that evolutionary rates can only be properly estimated in recent branches of a phylogeny. However, the extent of this effect is contentious [68, 69]. Actually, it has been shown more recently that, in fact, lack of consideration of coalescence of ancestral polymorphisms in recent calibrations [61, 70] or the use of too simple evolutionary models  may lead to altered results in dating analyses. Our approach included a calibration date in which coalescence should be negligible for usual population sizes in mammals  and we used a codon-partitioned model, which should avoid these problems. Nonetheless, an increase in the rate that we estimated for Galemys would only reduce, in the equivalent proportion, the split time of the mitochondrial lineages. Since our main purpose in this part of the work was to test if the separation of the mitochondrial lineages occurred in the Pleistocene, any increase in this rate would still support the Pleistocene split of the G. pyrenaicus mitochondrial lineages.
Although introns were very useful for obtaining the Galemys-Desmana split time in the first step of our dating analysis, the low variability of these sequences (Table 2) did not allow us to use them in a multilocus dating analysis for the second step, which would have permitted a direct estimation of the population splits in a species tree framework. In fact, the lack of accumulated differences at the nuclear level between the four desman populations may indicate more recent separations than the ones indicated by the mitochondrial genes. Further studies with additional nuclear data will help to resolve these issues.
Pleistocene evolution of the Pyrenean desman populations
An additional refugium situated in the Iberian Range or the Central System could have given rise to the populations of lineage A2, but the location of this refugium remains very speculative due to the scarcity of data for this lineage. Given the genetic proximity of this lineage to the northwestern A1 lineage, the refugium could have been situated somewhere in the Central System rather than in the more distant Iberian Range. If this were the case, part of the Iberian Range (Cameros, Urbión and Cebollera Mountains) would have been recently colonized. However, the dispersal, at least of females, would not have progressed towards the northwestern parts of the Iberian Range (Demanda Mountains).
Lineage B1 could have evolved in a refugium in the Cantabrian Mountains, where the maximum genetic diversity for this lineage was found. From this refugium, the species would have colonized the northwestern part of the Iberian Range (Demanda Mountains). However, at least the females would not have continued the dispersal towards more southeastern parts of the Iberian Range (Cameros, Urbión and Cebollera Mountains). Dispersal of lineage B1 from its putative refugium towards the western parts of the Cantabrian Mountains would have also been limited, and, at least the females, would not have crossed to the areas occupied by lineage A1.
Despite potentially suitable refugia within the Pyrenees , the Pyrenean populations of desmans, which belong to lineage B2 and are highly homogeneous genetically, must have originated from a distant refugium after a severe bottleneck. This refugium could have been placed towards the middle of the distribution this lineage, such as in the Basque Mountains, as previously suggested according to the current distribution of the species . The colonization of the Pyrenees must have been quite recent and likely occurred very quickly and through an important bottleneck, as deduced from the very low nuclear and mitochondrial diversity observed in the desmans of these mountains. From this putative refugium, the populations of this lineage also dispersed in other directions, towards the areas currently occupied by lineage B1, so that there is currently mixing of both B lineages in some rivers. The areas proposed here as likely glacial refugia for lineages B1 and B2, in the Cantabrian Mountains and the Basque Mountains, respectively, have been previously postulated to maintain potential refugia for many other species associated to humid climates, including mammals [75, 76] and plants .
The distribution of mitochondrial lineages and their variability allowed us to infer a clear postglacial expansion of the desman populations from the refugial areas. This range expansion should be in principle accompanied by an increase in population size, but the population expansion parameters of the mitochondrial sequences did not show statistically significant support in all lineages (Table 1). This is particularly noteworthy for the B2 lineage, in which the low genetic variability across the Pyrenees point to a strong bottleneck before the colonization of these mountains. However, the extremely low variability of this lineage (only four variable sites; Table 1) surely diminishes the statistical power of the expansion statistics. Additional mitochondrial data or more variable markers should be used to formally test the existence of these demographic expansions.
It is also worth noting that the range expansions hypothesized here could have taken place during particular periods of very favorable conditions, as shown for other species . In the case of the Pyrenean desman, the abundance of humid habitats during the deglaciation periods could have helped to quickly colonize new areas and extend its distribution range from the glacial refugia.
Thus, the evolutionary history of the Pyrenean desman supports the “refugia within refugia” hypothesis , which highlights that the Iberian Peninsula and likely other South European peninsulas cannot be regarded as homogeneous refugia but rather as centers of development of multiple refugia that gave rise to distinct evolutionary lineages within many species. Our results further extend this hypothesis by showing that peninsulas would have helped to develop, not only complex isolation mechanisms, but also the whole glacial processes of contraction and dispersal, leaving strong footprints on the genetic structure of endemic species such as the Pyrenean desman. Although these clear genetic traces had been mostly identified in species of continental distribution , some of which left distinctive lineages  or even species [80, 81] in the southern peninsulas, a growing number of endemic or semi-endemic species shows similarly complex population history patterns within the Iberian Peninsula [72, 82–85]. We show here that the genetic structure of the Pyrenean desman, a highly specialized mammal, was also affected by the whole glacial processes at a peninsular scale.
Small influence of the river network on the genetic structure of the Pyrenean desman
Contrary to the expectation that the genetic structure of a species with a semi-aquatic lifestyle and a strong dependence for clean waters, such as the Pyrenean desman, would be highly related to rivers and drainage basins, we found that only a small proportion of its genetic variation can be attributed to the grouping of populations by major river systems. In fact, identical mitochondrial haplotypes can be found at both sides of different mountain ranges, explaining the lack of strong differentiation among basins. Thus, these data allow us to infer that gene flow between basins exists or existed in a not so distant past. In conclusion, the genetic structure of the Pyrenean desman has been more influenced by the history of the Pleistocene glaciations than by its current aquatic habitat distribution, in spite of the strong fragmentation of such specialized habitat. This situation is intermediate between strictly aquatic organisms, whose genetic diversity has been more conditioned by river basins , and highly mobile semi-aquatic mammals, such as the Eurasian otter, whose genetic diversity is totally unrelated to river basins .
Strong signatures of isolation in the contact zones
The most unexpected finding in the genetic structure of the Pyrenean desman was the existence of narrow contact zones between the mitochondrial lineages that came into secondary contact after the post-glacial recolonization, with no apparent mixing among them. Actually, dispersal of the four lineages in different directions from the peripheral glacial refugia and the lack of suitable areas in the central parts (Meseta Central) have created an interesting circular distribution of the Pyrenean desman (Figure 9). In addition, the interrupted dispersal of lineage B1 in both clockwise and anti-clockwise directions, and of lineages A1 and A2 towards the areas of lineage B1, have created two prominent genetic gaps, that is, there are two replicate contact zones of the major genetic groups, A and B (Figure 9).
The strongest genetic gap was found in the middle of the Iberian Mountain Range, one of the places where the A and B groups meet (Figure 1A). The 23 samples collected in six rivers of the Iberian Range revealed that individuals belonging to both major lineages were present in this area. However, with the samples available so far, the lineages are segregated and have not been found together in any river stretch. In fact, we can trace a separation line (basically along the valley of the Najerilla river) that seems to restrict the dispersal of female desmans. The second genetic gap was found in the middle of the Cantabrian Mountains and it also affects the same major lineages, A and B. Despite conducting several surveys in this area of the Cantabrian Mountains, we could not get more samples to narrow the closest distance between both lineages. Therefore, we cannot determine at present whether or not some mixing of lineages occurs in this contact zone. However, the lack of penetration of females of one lineage into the distribution area of the other lineage is a remarkable circumstance in both contact zones, where no apparent barriers to dispersal of desmans exist. Although similar situations have been observed in other species [60, 66, 87–89], including some of the Iberian Peninsula [72, 82–84, 90, 91], certain degree of permeability through the contact zones is normally observed in these species, in contrast with the more strict situation seen in the Pyrenean desman. This phenomenon of competitive exclusion within species could have adaptive or neutral (demographic) causes . Although adaptive processes cannot be excluded, it has been suggested that saturation of the habitat in the contact zones would inhibit female migration in some species (density blocking) [91, 93]. This would explain why some of these species have dispersed hundreds of kilometers through empty spaces from glacial refugia but now seem unable to cross a stretch of a few kilometers .
The analysis of contact zones discussed so far has been based on mitochondrial data and therefore only refers to the dispersal pattern of females. Although obviously a crucial aspect of the species biology, it may not tell the whole story. In fact, in many species in which nuclear data was obtained, it has been observed that these barriers were not so strong or that they were absent for these markers, indicating male-biased dispersal [83, 89, 94]. Our intron sequences did not show enough variability within G. pyrenaicus to analyze these aspects in depth. However, three variants of the obtained SNPs (Figure 6) exhibited enough geographic extension to be useful in the analysis of dispersal . The three derived mutations showed a contiguous distribution within the sampling localities, suggesting that they arose in place and are of recent origin. In fact, one of the three mutations (in intron DHRS3-3; Figure 6) crosses the Cantabrian Mountains contact zone, suggesting that some male-driven dispersal has occurred through it, giving rise to certain degree of introgression. However, additional nuclear genetic data will be necessary to study these aspects in a more quantitative manner. So far, radio-tracking and recapture data of desmans have not revealed sex-biased dispersal  but data are still very scarce. Therefore further studies, both genetic and behavioral, should be carried out to better understand the mobility patterns and barriers to dispersal of the Pyrenean desman.
The existence of two main mitochondrial groups in the Pyrenean desman could in principle correspond to the two described subspecies, G. p. pyrenaicus and G. p. rufulus, but the distribution of the mitochondrial groups does not perfectly fit with any of the proposed distribution areas for the two subspecies, which have been very unstable in previous works [19–21]. However, none of the previous studies trying to delimit morphologically the subspecies took into account the boundaries between the populations revealed in this work. They rather mixed specimens belonging to different mitochondrial lineages in the analyses. For example, all specimens of the Iberian Range were pooled into a single population when, in fact, there are two distinct lineages in this region. This could have hindered the detection of significant morphological differences between subspecies [19, 21]. Future studies aimed at assessing the validity of these subspecies should analyze phenotypic differences between these groups and possible morphological gradients in the contact zones detected in this work. For the moment, according to the genetic results and the corresponding type localities of the subspecies , the populations of mitochondrial group A would correspond to subspecies G. p. rufulus, and those of group B to subspecies G. p. pyrenaicus.
Implications for conservation of the Pyrenean desman
The Pyrenean desman is legally protected in the four countries where it is present and it was classified as “Vulnerable” in the IUCN Red List . In addition, the populations of the Central Mountain System, in the southern part of the distribution, were recently catalogued by the Spanish Government as “In danger of extinction”, which is the highest protection category. The desman is therefore one of the most threatened mammals of the Iberian Peninsula and, by extension, of the European continent. Indeed, many data seem to indicate a substantial decline of the Pyrenean desman in the Central System in recent times . Actually, our own surveys did not yield any desman excrement in several localities of the Central System where the species had been captured in the last few decades, which forced us to rely on museum samples for our DNA work. More targeted surveys in the most southern parts of the historical range will be of utmost importance in future demographic and genetic studies of the species.
The genetic diversity of the Pyrenean desman was very small in its whole range, as confirmed with both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Regarding mitochondrial data, for which there are more data for comparison, the nucleotide diversity of the Pyrenean desman is around four times smaller than the mean for mammals , and it is particularly low in some areas such as the Pyrenees. Interestingly, however, the Pyrenean populations have been until recently in a relatively good state of conservation . In fact, as we have shown, this low genetic variability was likely due to a recent colonization of the Pyrenees (and not necessarily to a decline of these populations). However, it is important to be aware of the populations with the lowest genetic diversity values in case of future unforeseen environmental changes, which might be more detrimental for them.
The conclusions about the lack of strong genetic differentiation among river basins of the Pyrenean desman may also have implications for conservation purposes. In particular, these results allow us to infer that desmans have not been confined to the river basins where they inhabit and that they can move, or have moved in the recent past, through at least some of the watersheds. Therefore, connectivity between some water basins should not be discarded, in certain cases, to prevent or to reverse an excessive fragmentation of the populations. However, future studies will be necessary to determine the amount of recent gene flow between specific basins in order to properly inform conservation actions in this regard.
A crucial aspect that should be certainly taken into account in conservation programs is the delimitation of G. pyrenaicus into the four mitochondrial lineages found in this work. These lineages started to diverge during the Pleistocene glaciations and, in consequence, their integrity should be preserved until further studies establish the exact degree of genetic exchange between these populations . Therefore, following a precautionary principle, these lineages should be considered as different evolutionary units for conservation purposes. In particular, great care should be exercised to avoid any translocation of individuals between these units and thus preserve both the integrity of the Pyrenean desman and its evolutionary history.
Mitochondrial and nuclear data in the Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) allowed us to study the phylogeography of this species and provided evidence for an evolutionary history deeply influenced by the Pleistocene glaciations. One of the most striking findings of this work was the existence of a strong phylogeographic structure in the Pyrenean desman, in which two large groups, A and B, were subdivided into two further groups to give a total of four mitochondrial lineages with parapatric distribution (A1, A2, B1 and B2). Two narrow contact zones between the major groups (A and B), one in the Iberian Range and the other in the Cantabrian Mountains, indicate incomplete mixing after the post-glacial recolonization, at least for females. Nuclear data seem to indicate some degree of gene flow in these contact zones but more data will be necessary to further study the dispersal patterns of the desman. It is interesting to note that the presence of two major and parapatric mitochondrial groups parallels the existence of the two described subspecies, G. p. pyrenaicus and G. p. rufulus, whose distributions roughly correspond to groups B and A, respectively.
A dating analysis of the desmanines allowed us to estimate that the separation of the major mitochondrial lineages likely occurred in the Middle Pleistocene. In addition, both the geographic variation of genetic diversity (with the populations of highest diversity in the NW part and those of lowest diversity in the Pyrenees) and a species distribution model projected to the LGM coincided in indicating that the most important glacial refugium was in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula. Other minor refugia can be postulated in other parts of the distribution areas of the present mitochondrial lineages. A Holocene expansion from these refugia, but interrupted at the contact zones, led to the current parapatric distribution of the mitochondrial lineages.
The Pyrenean desman is an endangered species and its situation has worsened during the last few years in part of its distribution range, particularly in the most southern populations. In order to undertake the most favorable actions for the long-term survival of this species, conservation programs should keep in mind the peculiar genetic patterns found in this work. Most importantly, artificial mixing of desmans and, particularly, of individuals belonging to different lineages should be avoided. At the moment, almost no natural exchange between the lineages with different glacial origins has been observed and therefore no artificial translocations between them should be carried out until further studies establish the exact degree of genetic exchange between these populations. Although only following these criteria in management plans does not guarantee the conservation of the species, it would be essential to take this information into account in order to prevent an aggravation of the status of this singular species.
Availability of supporting data
All sequences obtained in this study have been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers JX290581 - JX291096 (see Additional file 1: Table S4). Alignments and trees reconstructed for the different genes of Galemys, Laurasiatherians and Talpids have been deposited in TreeBASE under accession number S14084 (http://purl.org/phylo/treebase/phylows/study/TB2:S14084).
We thank the BTVS-ICNF collection (Banco de Tecidos de Vertebrados Selvagens - Instituto da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas), the Tissue Collection of the Doñana Biological Station (EBD, CSIC), Xunta de Galicia, Gobierno de Navarra, Diputación Foral de Gipuzkoa, Gobierno de La Rioja, Julio Gisbert and Rosa García-Perea (Proyecto Galemia), and Oscar Arribas, for additional Galemys pyrenaicus samples from their respective biological collections, and Henrique Carvalho, Carla Marisa Quaresma and Carlos Santos (Instituto da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas) for their help with the access to the BTVS-ICNF collection. We also thank Anna Bannikova (Lomonosov Moscow State University) for the Desmana moschata sample. Gobierno de La Rioja, Generalitat de Catalunya, Gobierno de Cantabria, Gobierno del Principado de Asturias, Gobierno de Aragón, Parque Nacional de Picos de Europa, Parque Nacional de Ordesa y Monte Perdido, Parque Nacional de Aigüestortes i Estany De Sant Maurici, and Instituto da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas provided permits for collecting feces. We are also greatly indebted to Salvador Carranza, Jacint Ventura and María José López-Fuster for help during initial phases of the project, Carles Lalueza and Oscar Ramírez for providing facilities and help with the ancient DNA procedures, and Víctor Soria for help with the dating analysis. We also thank the following persons for help during sampling: César Aguilar, Daniel Menéndez Pérez, Ignacio García Hermosell, José Antonio García Pérez, Madis Podra, Pablo Fernández Tuya, Pablo Sanz, Sergi Munné Prat, Sonia Oreca and Yolanda Melero. IBERDROLA supported fieldwork in the North of Portugal and Fundación Biodiversidad in the Central System. We acknowledge support of the publication fee by the CSIC Open Access Publication Support Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI). This work was financially supported by research projects CGL2008-00434/BOS and CGL2011-22640/BOS of the Plan Nacional I + D + I del Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación to J.C., and 014/2008 of the Convocatoria de ayudas a proyectos de investigación en la Red de Parques Nacionales to J.G.
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