Skip to content


  • Correction
  • Open Access

Correction to: A new species of Xenoturbella from the western Pacific Ocean and the evolution of Xenoturbella

  • 1Email author,
  • 1,
  • 2,
  • 2,
  • 3,
  • 4,
  • 4,
  • 5,
  • 6, 7 and
  • 6
BMC Evolutionary Biology201818:83

  • Received: 26 December 2017
  • Accepted: 8 May 2018
  • Published:

The original article was published in BMC Evolutionary Biology 2017 17:245


After publication of Nakano et al. (2017) [1], the authors became aware of the fact that the new species-group name erected for the two specimens of a Japanese xenoturbellid species in the article is not available because Nakano et al. (2017) [1] does not meet the requirement of the amendment of Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (the Code) [2]. The authors therefore describe the two xenoturbellids as a new species again in this correction article. Methods for morphological observation, DNA extraction and sequencing were as described in Nakano et al. (2017) [1]. The holotype and paratype specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba (NSMT), Japan. The DNA sequences obtained were deposited in the International Nucleotide Sequence Database (INSD).

Genus Xenoturbella Westblad, 1949 [3]

Xenoturbella japonica sp. nov.

(Figs. 1–3, Additional files 1–3 in Nakano et al. (2017) [1])

Etymology. Named for the locality where the specimens were collected.

Holotype. NSMT-Xe 2, female (Figs. 1, 3, Additional files 1, 2 in Nakano et al. (2017) [1]), off Jogashima, Miura, Kanagawa, Japan, 35°06.93″ N 139°33.72″ E to 35°06.95″ N 139°33.33″ E, 380–554 m depth, December 9th, 2015.

Paratype. NSMT-Xe 1, juvenile, sex unknown (Figs. 2, 3, Additional files 1, 3 in Nakano et al. (2017) [1]), Sanriku coast, Iwate, Japan, 39°37.86″ N 142°18.22″ E to 39°37.00″ N 142°17.60″ E, 517–560 m depth, July 18th, 2013.

Description of female. Based on holotype. Body 5.3 cm in length; pale orange with coloration getting darker toward the anterior. In live specimens, muscles hold the dorsal body wall in a W-shape (three ridges and two troughs). Body shape actively changes by contracting and elongating when alive. Ring furrow and side furrow are present. Ventral mouth present, oval-shaped, just anterior to ring furrow. Glandular network present over ventral surface, starting near anterior tip of body and ending just in front of ring furrow. Internally, body wall with epidermis, circular and longitudinal muscles, parenchyma and gastrodermis present. Oocytes present within intestine. Statocyst situated near anterior tip of body, just inside side furrow.

Description of juvenile. Based on paratype. Similar to female, but differs as follows: body 1.1 cm in length; pale orange in color; dorsal body surface in live specimen smooth, lacking longitudinal ridges and troughs, similar to that of X. bocki; gametes not observed. Ventral glandular network not detected externally, but observed with microCT imaging.

Genetic information. Whole mitochondrial genome sequences (15,244 bp in holotype; 15,249 bp in paratype) and partial Histone H3 gene sequences (346 bp in holotype; 413 bp in paratype) were determined and deposited as INSD accession numbers LC228486, LC228485, LC228579 and LC228578, respectively.

Remarks. The same species name presented in Nakano et al. (2017) [1] is nomen nudum as the publication does not meet the requirement of the amendment of Article 8.5.3 of the Code [2]. The present erratum fully meets the amended provisions of the Code, and thus this work makes the specific name japonica in the combination of Xenoturbella japonica available.


The authors would like to thank Takafumi Nakano for discussions concerning this erratum.



Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

Shimoda Marine Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 5-10-1, Shimoda, Shizuoka 415-0025, Japan
Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan
Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, N10 W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo Hokkaido, 060-0810, Japan
DNA Sequencing Section, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna Okinawa, 904-0495, Japan
Marine Genomics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna Okinawa, 904-0495, Japan
Misaki Marine Biological Station, The University of Tokyo, 1024 Koajiro, Misaki, Miura Kanagawa, 238-0225, Japan
Present address: Sado Marine Biological Station, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Sado Niigata, 952-2135, Japan


  1. Nakano, et al. A new species of Xenoturbella from the western Pacific Ocean and the evolution of Xenoturbella. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:245.Google Scholar
  2. International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature. Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. Bull Zool Nomencl. 2012;69:161–9.
  3. Westblad E. Xenoturbella bocki n.g, n.sp, a peculiar, primitive turbellarian type. Ark Zool. 1949;1:3–29.Google Scholar


© The Author(s). 2018